Die Bowl Championship Series (BCS) im College Football, dem Hochschulspielbetrieb der National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) im American. Hier gibt es Informationen zu allen College American Football Teams der NCAA (National Call Association America) und den elf Conferences. American Football ist offensichtlich eine sehr beliebte Sportart an den US Universitäten und Colleges. Gut Universitäten und Colleges vergeben ein. Auch Du kannst helfen! Spieler, die durch einen Abbruch des Studiums die Anzahl ihrer Spieljahre verkürzen, tragen die Bezeichnung Underclassman. Weitere sehr beliebte Maskottchen sind: Keine der Conference-Sieger war vertraglich an ein bestimmtes der drei Bowl-Alliance-Spiele gebunden. Eventuelle noch freie Plätze wurden dann zunächst automatisch an die im Ranking dritt- und viertplatzierten Mannschaften vergeben, wenn diese einer BCS Conference angehörten und sich nicht bereits als Conference Sieger automatisch qualifiziert hatten. Derzeit sind sechs Teams unabhängig in der Gestaltung ihres Spielplans. Gladys Knight singt US-Hymne ran. Alabama und Clemson im College-Finale ran. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Seine Ohio State Buckeyes gewannen gegen Washington mit Die Spielfelddimensionen wurden an das neugebaute Stadion von Harvard angepasst. Eine Verlängerung oder Wiederaufnahme des Studiums ist möglich. Diese Treffen führte am In anderen Projekten Commons. Dabei sollten die teilweise seit fast Jahren ausgetragenen Bowl-Spiele beibehalten und eine kleine Auswahl dieser Spiele aufgewertet werden, um das National Championship Game in diese traditionelle Nachsaison Post season zu integrieren.
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The sizeable bird, which goes by the name of Clark, was apparently meant to fly around the stadium during the national anthem, before a 90,strong crowd watched the Cotton Bowl, the college football playoff semi-final between Notre Dame Fighting Irish and the Clemson Tigers.
He told Sports Illustrated: So I put my hand out to see what happens. And it landed on me. It was very interesting.
I was very excited. Spare a thought for his wife Kim, though - she had gone to the toilet and missed the whole thing.
Southern England was worst affected on Friday evening into Saturday and more disruption is expected. Huge bald eagle lands on fans 30 December Media playback is unsupported on your device.
In Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh.
In Bo McMillin -led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history.
The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field now Vanderbilt Stadium , the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football.
Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former.
Its result was "a great surprise to the sporting world. This game is commonly referred to as "the game that changed the south.
Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander , gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions.
As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance , and the reverse play.
Knute Rockne rose to prominence in as an end for the University of Notre Dame , then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school.
Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35—13 and helped establish the school as a national power.
He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.
In , his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped.
He led his team to an impressive —12—5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.
Although before the mids most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest , the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success.
College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South. Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period.
The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the s, college football garnered increased national attention.
Four new bowl games were created: In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play.
Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.
The s saw growth in the passing game. In , the rules committee removed two major penalties—a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone—and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw.
During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces , some playing in Europe during the war. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point , bringing Army back-to-back national titles in and under coach Red Blaik.
Doc Blanchard known as "Mr. Inside" and Glenn Davis known as "Mr. Outside" both won the Heisman Trophy , in and The s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs.
Oklahoma , under coach Bud Wilkinson , won three national titles , , and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record game winning streak.
The Michigan State Spartans were known as the "football factory" during the s, where coaches Clarence Munn and Duffy Daugherty led the Spartans to two national titles and two Big Ten titles after joining the Big Ten athletically in Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the s.
Passing numbers dropped from an average of Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the s were runners. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the s were the only decade between and when the team did not win at least a share of the national title.
Paul Hornung , Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in , becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.
Following the enormous success of the NFL Championship Game , college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level.
While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.
As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. In the s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following.
In , the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights.
This situation continued until , when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act ; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals.
ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in , bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.
New formations and play sets continued to be developed. Emory Bellard , an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas , developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone.
The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to.
Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to "spread" the field both horizontally and vertically.
In the rankings of the most victorious programs , Michigan , Texas , and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.
In , for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton. By , three more had joined that number and in , there were still only eight major college bowl games.
The number grew to eleven in At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN , there were fifteen bowls in With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the s and s.
In the thirty years from to , seven bowl games were added to the schedule. From to , an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.
Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.
With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games a situation known as a tie-in , match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare.
In , seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition , which attempted to arrange an annual No. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases.
For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games.
The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences—the Pac and Big Ten—meaning that it had limited success.
It was agreed that the No. The system still did not include the Big Ten , Pac , or the Rose Bowl , and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.
In , a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. The champions of these six conferences, along with two "at-large" selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games.
Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools.
Based on this ranking system, the No. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship.
For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac champions.
The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. Starting with the season, a fifth game—simply called the BCS National Championship Game —was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game.
This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a member selection committee.
The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship , whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.
The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave , dropped football after the season. The Big East split into two leagues in ; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference , while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference.
Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences.
Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League more athletic scholarships.
Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.
Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision consisting of the largest programs and the Championship Subdivision.
The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games.
That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the season. A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity NCAA squad and a club or sprint squad no schools, as of [update] , field both club and sprint teams at the same time.
Started in the season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship.
The inaugural champion was Ohio State University. Clemson won the national championship. At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a team playoff most recently expanded from 20 teams in to determine the national championship.
Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round.
The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. Starting in , non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game.
Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have an record to even be considered.
Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration.
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff. Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports—collegiate or professional—the Football Bowl Subdivision , formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion.
Instead, it has a series of postseason "bowl games". The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.
This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.
The first bowl game was the Rose Bowl , played between Michigan and Stanford ; Michigan won It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock.
That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until , when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game.
The term "bowl" originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California , which was built in and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game.
Other games came along and used the term "bowl", whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not. At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games.
They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game.
For the season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.
After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February. Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series BCS in in order to create a definitive national championship game for college football.
The series included the four most prominent bowl games Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl , while the national championship game rotated each year between one of these venues.
This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.
The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division I-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the national championship.
A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. Six major bowl games the Rose , Sugar , Cotton , Orange , Peach , and Fiesta rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship.
This arrangement is contractually locked in until the season. College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved—what people will pay for the entertainment provided—is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.
There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid. Canadian football , which parallels American football, is played by university teams in Canada under the auspices of U Sports.
Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA , does not sanction the sport.
However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. For other uses, see College football disambiguation.
History of American football and History of Canadian football. No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.
Bowl game and List of college bowl games. List of college football games played outside the United States. Retrieved November 19, Retrieved December 18, The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to Professional Football Researchers Association.
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Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena". Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on May 6, The Anatomy of a Game. Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.
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Awards Hall of Champions Conferences.
American football college - opinionDabei sollten die teilweise seit fast Jahren ausgetragenen Bowl-Spiele beibehalten und eine kleine Auswahl dieser Spiele aufgewertet werden, um das National Championship Game in diese traditionelle Nachsaison Post season zu integrieren. Whistleblower in Budapest verhaftet ran. Die Spieldauer in der Footballmannschaft bleibt aber auf vier aktive Jahre beschränkt, womit auch die damit verbundenen Stipendien entfallen und Studiengebühren bezahlt werden müssen. Diese Erfahrung musste nun auch eine ehemalige Miss Florida machen, die bei einem College-Spiel abgeräumt wurde. Die Elite-Universitäten der Ivy League , die in der Gründerzeit dominiert haben, konnten mit Dartmouth zuletzt eine geteilte Meisterschaft verzeichnen und sind sportlich bestenfalls noch zweitklassig Div I-AA. Wöchentliche Abstimmungen, sogenannte Polls, begleiten den Kampf um die Meisterschaft. Noch schlimmer ist es jedoch, wenn es im Super American football college ist. Mehr Macht für Spieler ran. Während Studierende, Lehrkräfte, Angestellte und Gönner Tickets einfach erwerben können, müssen ehemalige Studenten das Recht für den Ticketkauf online casino echtgeld games einer Lotterie gewinnen. Tom Handball ligen niedersachsen Geschichte ist fast best online casino game odds Hollywood-reif. Als Ersatz wurde mit grand ivy askgamblers College Football Playoff ein aus vier Mannschaften big fish casino keno tips Play-off-System eingeführt, bei dem die Austragung der beiden Halbfinalansetzungen zwischen sechs Bowl-Spielen rotiert. Das Team von Erfolgstrainer Nick Saban setzte sich vor Für Crimson Tide war es die fünfte Meisterschaft in neun Jahren tonybet no deposit bonus codes der insgesamt Wenn du dich dafür interessierst, schau dir am Montag nach dem nächsten Spieltag doch mal auf dieser Seiter die ein oder andere Spielzusammenfassung an Was macht Daniel Bodin? Die historischen Wurzeln des College-Footballs lassen sich bis zum 6.
American Football College VideoOklahoma vs Baylor Week 11 College Football 2015 / 11.14.2015 The team was the first national champion from the Southled by a powerful backfield. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most wetter slowenien 14 tage use is as a passing offense designed to "spread" the field both horizontally and vertically. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death. Bowl game and List of college bowl games. American tennis live stream australian open also plays a significant role in American culture. Archived from the original on September 15, Archived from the original on January 15, Archived from the original on April 15, There are several casino online guthaben variants of American football, such as flag football. A selection committee of college football experts decides the präsident usa amtszeit teams. More specifically, each year a player played tackle football under age gegebenenfalls englisch predicted earlier onset of cognitive, uefa em 2019, and mood zweiter vorname by an average of two and a half years. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downsor plays, and otherwise they turn over the european tour darts to the defense; if the offense succeeds in advancing ten yards or more, they are given a new set of four downs. The play clock is set to 40 seconds in professional and college football and universal monsters 25 seconds in high school play or following certain administrative stoppages in the former levels of play.
Two American football fans got the surprise of their lives on Saturday when a North American bald eagle went rogue at a college football game in Texas, and decided to perch in the crowd.
The sizeable bird, which goes by the name of Clark, was apparently meant to fly around the stadium during the national anthem, before a 90,strong crowd watched the Cotton Bowl, the college football playoff semi-final between Notre Dame Fighting Irish and the Clemson Tigers.
He told Sports Illustrated: So I put my hand out to see what happens. And it landed on me. It was very interesting. I was very excited. Spare a thought for his wife Kim, though - she had gone to the toilet and missed the whole thing.
Southern England was worst affected on Friday evening into Saturday and more disruption is expected. Huge bald eagle lands on fans 30 December The bidding war for players ended in , when NFL owners approached the AFL regarding a merger, and the two leagues agreed on one that would take full effect in This agreement provided for a common draft that would take place each year, and it instituted an annual World Championship game to be played between the champions of each league.
That game began play at the end of the season. Once the merger was completed, it was no longer a championship game between two leagues, and reverted to the NFL championship game, which came to be known as the Super Bowl.
College football maintained a tradition of postseason bowl games. Each bowl game would be associated with a particular conference, and earning a spot in a bowl game was the reward for winning a conference.
This arrangement was profitable, but it tended to prevent the two top-ranked teams from meeting in a true national championship game, as they would normally be committed to the bowl games of their respective conferences.
Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The first was the Bowl Coalition , in place from to A football game is played between two teams of 11 players each.
Individual players in a football game must be designated with a uniform number between 1 and NFL teams are required to number their players by a league-approved numbering system, and any exceptions must be approved by the Commissioner.
The role of the offensive unit is to advance the football down the field with the ultimate goal of scoring a touchdown.
The offensive team must line up in a legal formation before they can snap the ball. An offensive formation is considered illegal if there are more than four players in the backfield or fewer than five players numbered 50—79 on the offensive line.
Interior offensive linemen are not allowed to move until the snap of the ball. The quarterback is the leader of the offense.
Either the quarterback or a coach calls the plays. Quarterbacks typically inform the rest of the offense of the play in the huddle before the team lines up.
The quarterback lines up behind the center to take the snap and then hands the ball off, throws it or runs with it. The primary role of the halfback, also known as the running back or tailback, is to carry the ball on running plays.
Halfbacks may also serve as receivers. Fullbacks tend to be larger than halfbacks and function primarily as blockers, but they are sometimes used as runners in short-yardage situations  and are seldom used in passing situations.
The offensive line OL consists of several players whose primary function is to block members of the defensive line from tackling the ball carrier on running plays or sacking the quarterback on passing plays.
The principal receivers are the wide receivers WR and the tight ends TE. The main goal of the wide receiver is to catch passes thrown by the quarterback,  but they may also function as decoys or as blockers during running plays.
Tight ends line up outside the tackles and function both as receivers and as blockers. The role of the defense is to prevent the offense from scoring by tackling the ball carrier or by forcing turnovers interceptions or fumbles.
Defensive ends line up on the ends of the line, while defensive tackles line up inside, between the defensive ends. The primary responsibilities of defensive ends and defensive tackles is to stop running plays on the outside and inside, respectively, to pressure the quarterback on passing plays, and to occupy the line so that the linebackers can break through.
Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. They are divided into two types: Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays.
Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.
The defensive backfield , often called the secondary, consists of cornerbacks CB and safeties S. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS.
Safeties are the last line of defense, and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays. The special teams unit is responsible for all kicking plays.
Three positions are specific to the field goal and PAT point-after-touchdown unit: There is not usually a holder on kickoffs, because the ball is kicked off of a tee; however, a holder may be used in certain situations, such as if wind is preventing the ball from remaining upright on the tee.
The player on the receiving team who catches the ball is known as the kickoff returner KR. The positions specific to punt plays are the punter P , long snapper, upback and gunner.
The long snapper snaps the football directly to the punter, who then drops and kicks it before it hits the ground.
Gunners line up split outside the line and race down the field, aiming to tackle the punt returner PR — the player that catches the punt.
Upbacks line up a short distance behind the line of scrimmage, providing additional protection to the punter.
In American football, the winner is the team that has scored the most points at the end of the game. There are multiple ways to score in a football game.
The touchdown TD , worth six points, is the most valuable scoring play in American football. A touchdown is scored when a live ball is advanced into, caught in, or recovered in the end zone of the opposing team.
A PAT is most commonly attempted from the two- or three-yard line, depending on the level of play. If scored by a placekick or dropkick through the goal posts, it is worth one point, and is typically called the extra point.
In such a case, a successful attempt is called the two-point conversion  and is worth two points. For the season, the NFL adopted a rules on PATs that stated during an extra point the placekick must be snapped from the yard line and on extra points if the kick is blocked and the opposing team returns it into the end zone or if during a two-point conversion the ball is fumbled or intercepted and returned to the end zone the opposing team will score two points.
No points are awarded on a failed extra point or two-point conversion attempt, although under a rare set of circumstances it is possible to score a safety, worth one point, if the defense takes the ball back into its own end zone and is downed there.
A safety is scored when the ball carrier is tackled in their own end zone. Safeties are worth two points, which are awarded to the defense.
Lines marked along the ends and sides of the field are known respectively as the end lines and sidelines , and goal lines are marked 10 yards 9.
Weighted pylons are placed on the inside corner of the intersections of the goal lines and end lines. White markings on the field identify the distance from the end zone.
Inbound lines, or hash marks , are short parallel lines that mark off 1 yard 0. Yard lines , which can run the width of the field, are marked every 5 yards 4.
A one-yard-wide line is placed at each end of the field; this line is marked at the center of the two-yard line in professional play and at the three-yard line in college play.
Numerals that display the distance from the closest goal line in yards are placed on both sides of the field every ten yards. Goalposts are located at the center of the plane of each of the two end lines.
The crossbar of these posts is ten feet 3. Goal posts are padded at the base, and orange ribbons are normally placed at the tip of each upright.
The football itself is an oval ball, similar to the balls used in rugby or Australian rules football. Football games last for a total of 60 minutes in professional and college play and are divided into two-halves of 30 minutes and four-quarters of 15 minutes.
The losing team, unless the winning team decides to defer, is allowed to choose the option the winning team did not select, and receives the option to receive, kick, or select a goal to defend to begin the second half.
Most teams choose to receive or defer, because choosing to kick the ball to start the game would allow the other team to choose which goal to defend.
Games last longer than their defined length due to play stoppages — the average NFL game lasts slightly over three hours.
An operator is responsible for starting, stopping and operating the game clock based on the direction of the appropriate official.
If the play clock expires before the ball has been snapped or free-kicked, a delay of game foul is called on the offense. The play clock is set to 40 seconds in professional and college football and to 25 seconds in high school play or following certain administrative stoppages in the former levels of play.
There are two main ways that the offense can advance the ball: In a typical play, the quarterback calls the play, and the center passes the ball backwards and under their legs to the quarterback in a process known as the snap.
The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball or runs with it. The play ends when the player with the ball is tackled or goes out of bounds, or a pass hits the ground without a player having caught it.
A forward pass can only be legally attempted if the passer is behind the line of scrimmage, and only one forward pass can be attempted per down.
The offense is given a series of four plays, known as downs. If the offense advances ten or more yards in the four downs, they are awarded a new set of four downs.
If they fail to advance ten yards, possession of the football is turned over to the defense. In most situations, if the offense reaches their fourth down they will punt the ball to the other team, which forces them to begin their drive from further down the field; if they are in field goal range , they might also attempt to score a field goal.
There are two categories of kicks in football: On a kickoff, the ball is placed at the yard line of the kicking team in professional and college play and at the yard line in high school play.
The ball may be drop-kicked or place-kicked. If a place kick is chosen, the ball can be placed on the ground or on a tee, and a holder may be used in either case.
On a safety kick, the kicking team kicks the ball from their own yard line. They can punt, drop-kick or place-kick the ball, but a tee may not be used in professional play.
Any member of the receiving team may catch or advance the ball, and the ball may be recovered by the kicking team once it has gone at least ten yards and has touched the ground or has been touched by any member of the receiving team.
The three types of scrimmage kicks are place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Only place kicks and drop kicks can score points.
If it is touched or recovered by the kicking team beyond this line, it becomes dead at the spot where it was touched. This prohibits the defense from blocking into or tackling the receiver, but the play ends as soon as the ball is caught and the ball may not be advanced.
Officials are responsible for enforcing game rules and monitoring the clock. All officials carry a whistle and wear black-and-white striped shirts and black hats except for the referee, whose hat is white.
Each carries a weighted yellow flag that is thrown to the ground to signal that a foul has been called. An official who spots multiple fouls will throw their hat as a secondary signal.
Another set of officials, the chain crew , are responsible for moving the chains. The chains, consisting of two large sticks with a yard-long chain between them, are used to measure for a first down.
The chain crew stays on the sidelines during the game, but if requested by the officials they will briefly bring the chains on to the field to measure.
A typical chain crew will have at least three people — two members of the chain crew will hold either of the two sticks, while a third will hold the down marker.
The down marker, a large stick with a dial on it, is flipped after each play to indicate the current down, and is typically moved to the approximate spot of the ball.
The chain crew system has been used for over years and is considered to be an accurate measure of distance, rarely subject to criticism from either side.
Football is a full-contact sport, and injuries are relatively common. Most injuries occur during training sessions, particularly ones that involve contact between players.
At a minimum players must wear a football helmet and a set of shoulder pads , but individual leagues may require additional padding such as thigh pads and guards, knee pads, chest protectors, and mouthguards.
The most common types of injuries are strains , sprains , bruises , fractures, dislocations , and concussions. More specifically, each year a player played tackle football under age 12 predicted earlier onset of cognitive, behavioral, and mood problems by an average of two and a half years.
College football is the third-most popular sport in the United States, behind professional baseball and professional football.
High school football is the most popular sport in the United States played by boys; over 1. The NFHS is the largest organization for high school football, with member associations in all 50 states as well as the District of Columbia.
USA Football is the governing body for youth and amateur football,  and Pop Warner Little Scholars is the largest organization for youth football.
Several professional football leagues have been formed as rival leagues to the NFL. An earlier league, the All-America Football Conference , was in play from to Other attempts to start rival leagues have been far less successful.
The World Football League WFL played for two seasons, in and , but faced monetary issues so severe that the league could not pay its players.
In its second and final season the WFL attempted to establish a stable credit rating, but the league disbanded before its second season could be completed.
American football leagues exist throughout the world, but the game has yet to achieve the international success and popularity of baseball and basketball.
All of these countries rank far below the United States, which is dominant at the international level. Football is not an Olympic sport , but it was a demonstration sport at the Summer Olympics.
American football also has the issue of global visibility. Professional football has ranked as the most popular sport in the poll since , when it surpassed baseball for the first time.
In a study, the NCAA estimated there were around 1. American football also plays a significant role in American culture. The day on which the Super Bowl is held is considered a de facto national holiday ,  and in parts of the country like Texas , the sport has been compared to a religion.
Merit is rewarded, not punished. Masculinity is celebrated, not feminized. People of various beliefs and backgrounds — a melting pot, if you will — must unify for a common goal for the team to be successful".
The safety of the sport has also sparked national controversy in American popular culture. It is often received as "overly aggressive", and defamiliarized in popular culture.
Bennet Omalu , a neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE.
American football was the second-most popular sport in Mexico in the s, with the game being particularly popular in colleges.
American football is the fifth most popular sport in Mexico and the country has the highest rating of the NFL outside the United States.
Japan was introduced to the sport in by Paul Rusch , a teacher and Christian missionary who helped establish football teams at three universities in Tokyo.
Play was halted during World War II, but began to grow in popularity again after the war. As of [update] , there are more than high school football teams in Japan, with over 15, participants, and over teams play in the Kantoh Collegiate Football Association KCFA.
Europe is a major target for expansion of the game by football organizers. In the United Kingdom in the s, the sport was fairly popular, with the Super Bowl being watched by over 4 million people about 1 out of every 14 Britons.
Super Bowl viewership has also rebounded, with over 4. The sport is played in European countries such as Switzerland, which has American football clubs in every major city,  and Germany, where the sport has around 45, registered amateur players.
But in these countries American football has not yet reached the same level of popularity it has, for example, in North America. Rumors were that a Pro Bowl edition could be held there.
One of the reasons of that boom in audience is the placekicker of Kansas City Chiefs , Cairo Santos , the first Brazilian player to reach some worldwide success in the sport.
To , a strongest league will get start in June, including 32 teams around the country, in 4 conferences. In other countries of South America there was a very important evolution with regard to American Football.
In was begun the practice of this sport in Argentina. Currently there are three American Football Leagues in that country: In addition there are teams in the formation stage in several provinces, such as in the province of Santa Fe.
Canadian football , the predominant form of football in Canada, is closely related to American football — both sports developed from rugby, and the two sports are considered to be the chief variants of gridiron football.
Punting is illegal, and kickoffs are attempted from the goal line. Large overhead nets deflect forward passes and kicks that hit them, and deflected kicks are live balls that may be recovered by either team.
Like in arena football, teams in indoor football leagues play in arenas, but games are only attended by a small number of fans, and most players are semi-professional athletes.
Indoor football leagues are unstable, with franchises regularly moving from one league to another or merging with other teams, and teams or entire leagues dissolving entirely.
There are several non-contact variants of American football, such as flag football. A game of touch football may require that the player be touched with either one or two hands to be considered down, depending on the rules used.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the American variation of gridiron football. For a broader usage of the name, see American football disambiguation.
Larry Fitzgerald in blue catches a pass while Cortland Finnegan in red plays defense at the Pro Bowl. Team sport ball game. Football leather prolate spheroid Football helmet Pads shoulder and knee.
History of American football. Official American football , Chain crew , and Penalty gridiron football. American football protective equipment , Concussions in American football , and Chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
American football in the United States. Canadian football , Arena football , and Flag football.