North: Book of the Dead, Chapter w.9 Plate 32 (upper left): Hymn to Min, Schlußtext von Totenbuchspruch , in: RdE 43, , –94; F. Tiradritti. Dez. Czerwik, D., «Some Remarks on the Letters to the Dead from the FI P», in: GM, to Chapter in the Book of the Dead of Qenna», in: OMRO Oct 8, book of the dead chapter BOOK OF THE DEAD BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT edited by FOY.. to define the ancient Egyptian Book.
As for that Great God who is therein, he is Ra himself. My mouth is opened, by mouth is split open by Shu with that iron harpoon of his with which he split open the mouths of the gods.
I have put my name in the Upper Egyptian shrine, I [have] made my name to be remembered in the Lower Egyptian shrine, on this night of counting the years and of numbering the months This spell was found in Hermopolis, under the feet of this god.
It was written on a block of mineral of Upper Egypt in the writings of the god himself, and was discovered in the time of [King] Menkaure.
O my heart of my mother! O my heart of my different forms! Do not stand up as a witness against me, do not be opposed to me in the tribunal, do not be hostile to me in the presence of the Keeper of the Balance, for you are my ka which was in my body, the protector who made my members hale.
Go forth to the happy place whereto we speed, do not make my name stink to the Entourage who make men. Do not tell lies about me in the present of the god.
It is indeed well that you should hear! Get back, you dangerous one! The sky encloses the stars, magic encloses its settlements, and my mouth encloses the magic which is in it.
My teeth are a knife, my tusks are the Viper Mountain. Get back, you crocodile of the West! The nau -snake is in my belly, and I have not given myself to you, your flame will not be on me.
The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense. In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied.
It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.
An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.
In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat.
There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.
There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.
While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.
The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.
Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.
If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.
There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins ,  reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession". Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name.
If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life. Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".
This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.
The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society. For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.
A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.
They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver,  perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.
In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.
Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman. The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m.
The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.
Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later. The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.
The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.
Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.
From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.
Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic. The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script.
As soon as Osiris had eaten the eye of Horus he became endowed with a soul and vital power, and recovered thereby the complete use of all his mental faculties, which death had suspended.
Osiris became the type and symbol of resurrection among the Egyptians of all periods, because he was a god who had been originally a mortal and had risen from the dead.
Piecing together a number of disconnected hints and brief statements in the texts, it seems pretty clear either that Osiris appealed to the "Great Gods" to take notice that Set had murdered him, or that Set brought a series of charges against Osiris.
At all events the "Great Gods" determined to investigate the matter. The Greater and the Lesser Companies of the Gods assembled in the celestial Anu, or Heliopolis, and ordered Osiris to stand up and defend himself against the charges brought against him by Set.
Isis and Nephthys brought him before the gods, and Horus, "the avenger of his father," came to watch the case on behalf of his father, Osiris.
Thoth appeared in the Hall of Judgment in his official capacity as "scribe," i. Set seems to have pleaded his own cause, and to have repeated the charges which he had made against Osiris.
The defence of Osiris was undertaken by Thoth, who proved to the gods that the charges brought against Osiris by Set were unfounded, that the statements of Set were lies, and that therefore Set was a liar.
After this Set was bound with cords like a beast for sacrifice, and in the presence of Thoth was hacked in pieces. When Set was destroyed Osiris departed from this world to the kingdom which the gods had given him and began to reign over the dead.
This region of the dead, or Dead-land, is called "Tat," , or "Tuat," , but where the Egyptians thought it was situated is not quite clear. The original home of the cult of Osiris was in the Delta, in a city which in historic times was called Tetu by the Egyptians and Busiris by the Greeks, and it is reasonable to assume that the Tuat, over which Osiris ruled, was situated near this place.
Wherever it was it was not underground, and it was not originally in the sky or even on its confines; but it was located on the borders of the visible world, in the Outer Darkness.
When Ani the scribe arrived there he said, "What is this to which I have come? There is neither water nor air here, its depth is unfathomable, it is as dark as the darkest night, and men wander about here helplessly.
In the Tuat there was neither tree nor plant, for it was the "land where nothing grew"; and in primitive times it was a region of destruction and death, a place where the dead rotted and decayed, a place of abomination, and horror and terror, and annihilation.
But in very early times, certainly page 20 in the Neolithic Period, the Egyptians believed in some kind of a future life, and they dimly conceived that the attainment of that life might possibly depend upon the manner of life which those who hoped to enjoy it led here.
The Egyptians "hated death and loved life," and when the belief gained ground among them that Osiris, the God of the Dead, had himself risen from the dead, and had been acquitted by the gods of heaven after a searching trial, and had the power to "make men and women to be born again," and "to renew life" because of his truth and righteousness, they came to regard him as the Judge as well as the God of the Dead.
As time went on, and moral and religious ideas developed among the Egyptians, it became certain to them that only those who had satisfied Osiris as to their truth-speaking and honest dealing upon earth could hope for admission into his kingdom.
When the power of Osiris became predominant in the Under World, and his fame as a just and righteous judge became well established among the natives of Lower and Upper Egypt, it was universally believed that after death all men would appear before him in his dread Hall of Judgment to receive their reward or their sentence of doom.
The writers of the Pyramid Texts, more than fifty-five centuries ago, dreamed of a time when heaven and earth and men did not exist, when the gods had not yet been born, when death had not been created, , and when anger, speech?
Meanwhile death had come into the world, and since the religion of Osiris gave man a hope of escape from death, and the promise of everlasting life of the peculiar kind that appealed to the great mass of the Egyptian people, the spread of the cult of Osiris and its ultimate triumph over all forms of religion in Egypt were assured.
It was embraced by the Pharaohs, and their high officials, and some of the nobles, and the official priesthood, but the reward which its doctrine offered was not popular with the materialistic Egyptians.
The Judgment of Osiris took place near Abydos, probably at midnight, and a decree of swift annihilation was passed by him on the damned.
Their heads were cut off by the headsman of Osiris, who was called Shesmu, , and their bodies dismembered and destroyed in pits of fire.
There was no eternal punishment for men, for the wicked were annihilated quickly and completely; but inasmuch as Osiris sat in judgment and doomed the wicked to destruction daily, the infliction of punishment never ceased.
The oldest religious texts suggest that the Egyptians always associated the Last Judgment with the weighing of the heart in a pair of scales, and in the illustrated papyri of the Book of the Dead great prominence is always given to the vignettes in which this weighing is being carried out.
The heart, ab , was taken as the symbol of all the emotions, desires, and passions, both good and evil, and out of it proceeded the issues of life.
It was intimately connected with the ka , , i. I have destroyed sin for thee. I have not sinned against men. I have not oppressed [my] kinsfolk.
I have done no wrong in the place of truth. I have not known worthless folk. I have not wrought evil. I have not defrauded the oppressed one of his goods.
I have not done the things that the gods abominate. I have not vilified a servant to his master. I have not caused pain. I have not let any man hunger.
I have made no one to weep. I have not committed murder. I have not commanded any to commit murder for me. I have inflicted pain on no man.
I have not defrauded the temples page 23 of their oblations. I have not purloined the cakes of the gods. I have not stolen the offerings to the spirits i.
I have not committed fornication. I have not polluted myself in the holy places of the god of my city. I have not diminished from the bushel.
I did not take from or add to the acre-measure. I did not encroach on the fields [of others]. I have not added to the weights of the scales.
I have not misread the pointer of the scales. I have not taken milk from the mouths of children. I have not driven cattle from their pastures.
I have not snared the birds of the gods. I have not caught fish with fish of their kind. I have not stopped water [when it should flow].
I have not cut the dam of a canal. I have not extinguished a fire when it should burn. I have not altered the times of the chosen meat offerings.
I have not turned away the cattle [intended for] offerings. I have not repulsed the god at his appearances. Each of the Forty-Two gods represents one of the nomes of Egypt and has a symbolic name.
When the deceased had repeated the magical names of the doors of the Hall, he entered it and saw these gods arranged in two rows, twenty-one on each side of the Hall.
The deceased advanced along the Hall and, addressing each of the Forty-Two gods by his name, declared that he had not committed a certain sin, thus:.
The names of most of the Forty-Two gods are not ancient, but were invented by the priests probably about the same time as the names in the Book of Him that is in the Tuat and the Book of Gates, i.
Their artificial character is shown by their meanings. The early Egyptologists called the second part of the CXXVth Chapter the "Negative Confession," and it is generally known by this somewhat inexact title to this day.
In the third part of the CXXVth Chapter comes the address which the deceased made to the gods after he had declared his innocence of the sins enumerated before the Forty-Two gods.
I know you and I know your names. Let me not fall under your slaughtering knives. Bring not my wickedness to the notice of the god whose followers ye are.
Let not the affair [of my judgment] come under your jurisdiction. Speak ye the Law or truth concerning me before Neb-er-tcher, 3 for I performed the Law or, truth in Ta-mera i.
I have not blasphemed the God. No affair of mine came under the notice of the king in his day. I have come page 25 to you without sin, without deceit?
I have not done an [evil] thing. I live upon truth and I feed upon truth. I have performed the behests of men, and the things that satisfy the gods.
I have given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, raiment to the naked, and a boat to him that needed one.
I have made holy offerings to the gods, and sepulchral offerings to the beautified dead. Be ye then my saviours, be ye my protectors, and make no accusation against me before the Great God.
I have purified myself with washings in water, my back hath been cleansed with salt, and my inner parts are in the Pool of Truth.
There is not a member of mine that lacketh truth. When he had pronounced these correctly the porter took him in and presented him to Maau? When asked by him why he had come the deceased answered, "I have come that report may be made of me.
The most complete form of it is given in the Papyrus of Ani, and may be thus described: By these stands the Great Balance, and on its pillar sits the dog-headed ape Astes, or Astenu, the associate of Thoth.
The pointer of the Balance is in the charge of Anpu. My heart of my mother! My heart of my being! Make no stand against me when testifying, thrust me not back before the Tchatchaut i.
Thou art my Ka, the dweller in my body, uniting? Thou shalt come forth to the happiness to which we advance. Make not my name to stink with the officers [of Osiris] who made men, utter no lie against me before the Great God, the Lord of Amentt.
In very truth the heart of Osiris hath been weighed, and his soul hath borne testimony concerning him; according to the Great Balance his case is truth i.
No wickedness hath been found in him.