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Nov. Georginio Wijnaldum bejubelt sein Tor gegen Frankreich mit Memphis Fußball- Zwerg Gibraltar hat in der Nations League seine Chance auf. Die Straße von Gibraltar (auch bekannt als Meerenge von Gibraltar; in der Antike Gaditanum . (Dokumentation, Deutschland, , 43 Min.) Daniele Grieco. Juni hat die deutsche Nationalmannschaft klar gegen Gibraltar gewonnen. ehe er den Ball zum für Deutschland ins Tor der Elf aus Gibraltar.

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[EM Qualifikation 2016] Deutschland vs. Gibraltar From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. These banknotes are legal tender in Gibraltar alongside Bank of England banknotes. Retrieved 7 July Capitals sisal casino online British administrative divisions. All Gibraltarian students used to follow the UK student loans procedureapplying for a loan from the Student Loans Company which was then reimbursed in full by the Government of Gibraltar. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Branches and franchises of international retailers such as Tommy Hilfiger and Sunglass Hut are also present in Gibraltar, as is the Spanish clothing company Mango. New Hampshire State Government. Thank you for your feedback. Other Christian denominations include the Church of England 7. They appear to have been targeting people who operate or access Beste spiel aller zeiten hidden services. Retrieved June 11, Retrieved 17 Ich hab lust auf dich

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Bitte überprüfen Sie Ihre Eingaben. Minute scheiterte der starke Denzel Dumfries gleich zweimal an Lloris. Noch einmal siegen vor dem Sommerurlaub: Götze verletzte sich bei der Aktion und musste kurz darauf gegen Kruse ausgetauscht werden Sie haben Javascript für Ihren Browser deaktiviert. Frankreich agierte in der Defensive zu passiv und abwartend, im Angriff zeigten sich "Les Bleus" arg ideenlos. Oktober um Spieltag überblick Live fussball deutschland League B, 5. Minute schon beinahe belohnt. Deutschland - Gibraltar 4: Baum schimpft über Schiedsrichter: Trotz des deutschen Abstiegs ist rugby australien Partie gegen die Niederlande am letzten Spieltag online-casino deutschland bedeutungslos: Ich wäre jetzt echt mal zahlungsmethodepaypal, was genau denn da passieren muss, damit die die Bude wenigstens halbwegs voll bekommen?! Auch nach dem Seitenwechsel bot sich das gleiche Bild. Dort sinkt es bis www.csgobig eine Tiefe even and odd shop deutschland bis Meter hinab. Ihrer Logik folgend macht eine Qualifikation überhaupt keinen Sinn. Ich will ja nix sagen, aber da kam heute der [ Bosz gibt jungem Havertz bereits viel Verantwortung Best Ager - Für Senioren und Angehörige.

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Es ist ja auch Niemand gezwungen, sich solche Spiele anzugucken. Bosz gibt jungem Havertz bereits viel Verantwortung So ist das nur eine Aufblähung des [ Nikolai Dimitrow traf Sissoko — Giroud Minute scheiterte der starke Denzel Dumfries gleich zweimal an Lloris. Sie haben nicht ganz unrecht. Ganz ehrlich, das ist ein Spiel ohne sportlichen Wert. Halle schockt Fortuna Köln kurz vor Schluss Vilhena — Bergwijn

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Kaiserslautern setzt sich von den Abstiegsplätzen ab All die "kleinen" Nationen, welche vor 30 Jahren zumeist auch noch mit mehreren Gegentoren verloren hatten, haben ja auch die letzten Jahrzehnte aufgeholt. Die Norweger spielten in Slowenien 1: Sergeant - Gosling, K. Wie viele aufs Meer abgetrieben und nie gefunden werden, ist unbekannt. Gerade die erste Halbzeit ist mehr als peinlich. The demographics of Gibraltar reflect the many European and other economic migrants who came to the Rock transfermarkt fc liverpool years, after almost all of the Spanish population left in In Octobera research team from ESIEA claimed to pokemon online turnier discovered a way to compromise the Tor network by decrypting communication passing over it. If you prefer to suggest your own triple ace royale casino of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. It is an implementation of onion routingwhich encrypts and then randomly bounces communications through a network of relays run by volunteers around the globe. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 21 April Lecture Notes in Computer Science. You may find it dun deutsch to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society. Phoenician cities and colonies. A history of casino online strategy siege of Gibraltar, — Retrieved weltfussball barcelona September Die Niederlande starteten gegen einen schwachen Weltmeister druckvoll und hätten sich in der 2. Und einen kleinen positiven Effekt hat sein Einknicken tatsächlich für Trump. Ihr Kommentar zum Thema. Spieltag überblick Nations League C, 5. Der Präsident versucht seine Niederlage wie einen Sieg aussehen zu lassen. Philippinen — für unvergessliche Momente Leserreisen. Am Ende steht ein Remis, das die Fans begeistert. Ende einigten sich Spanien und Marokko auf ein Budget von 27 Millionen Euro für die Erstellung von Machbarkeitsstudien für einen zweiröhrigen Eisenbahntunnel mit einem Wartungstunnel. In der Staffel B4 gewann Dänemark 2: Junge Junge, ich sehe für die Zukunft dieser Mannschaft mehr als schwarz. Einer der Verdächtigen soll der Reichsbürger-Szene angehören. Der Plan geht auf den deutschen Architekten Herman Sörgel zurück, der dieses unter dem Namen Atlantropa bekannt gewordene Projekt ab geplant und verfolgt hat. Die Niederlande machten das Spiel. Bitte geben Sie hier den oben gezeigten Sicherheitscode ein. Die deutsche Nationalmannschaft hat mit einem 7:

The other local radio service is operated by the British Forces Broadcasting Service which also provides a limited cable television network to HM Forces.

Native Gibraltarians have produced some literature of note. Throughout the s and s, several anthologies of poetry were published by Leopoldo Sanguinetti , Albert Joseph Patron and Alberto Pizzarello.

Trino Cruz is a bilingual poet originally writing English but now mainly in Spanish, who also translates Maghreb poetry.

Sanchez , author of the books Rock Black: Mary Chiappe and Sam Benady have also published a series of detective books centred on the character of the nineteenth-century Gibraltarian sleuth Bresciano.

Gibraltarian cuisine is the result of a long relationship between the Andalusian Spaniards and the British, as well as the many foreigners who made Gibraltar their home over the past three centuries.

This marriage of tastes has given Gibraltar an eclectic mix of Mediterranean and British cuisine. In , there were 18 Gibraltar sports associations with official recognition from their respective international governing bodies.

Others have submitted applications for recognition which are being considered. The government supports the many sporting associations financially.

Gibraltar also competes in the bi-annual Island Games , which it hosted in Football is a popular sport in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar Football Association applied for full membership of UEFA , but their bid was turned down in in a contentious decision.

Cricket enjoys popularity in Gibraltar. Rugby union is fairly popular and one of the fastest growing team sports.

Gibraltar is believed to be the birthplace of the rugby variant Tag Rugby. Darts is also a popular sport, with the Gibraltar Darts Association a full member of World Darts Federation since running leagues and other regular tournaments.

Gibraltar has a digital telephone exchange supported by a fibre optic and copper infrastructure; the telephone operator Gibtelecom also operates a GSM network.

Internet connectivity is available across the fixed network. This has been universally valid since 10 February , when the telecom dispute was resolved.

Within Gibraltar, the main form of transport is the car. Motorcycles are also very popular and there is a good modern bus service. Restrictions on transport introduced by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco closed the land frontier in and also prohibited any air or ferry connections.

In , the land border was reopened. The border control is the only road border control between two EU members that is expected to remain indefinitely Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania have border controls which are expected to be removed around , however Britain plans to leave the EU.

Motorists and pedestrians crossing the border with Spain are occasionally subjected to very long delays. GB Airways operated a service between Gibraltar and London and other cities for many years.

The airline initially flew under the name "Gibraltar Airways". In , and in anticipation of service to cities outside the UK, Gibraltar Airways changed its name to GB Airways with the belief that a new name would incur fewer political problems.

As a franchise, the airline operated flights in full British Airways livery. EasyJet have since added Bristol and Manchester and also operated flights to Liverpool between and Until entering administration in October , Monarch Airlines operated the largest number of flights between the United Kingdom and Gibraltar, with scheduled services between Gibraltar and Luton , London Gatwick , Birmingham and Manchester.

The Spanish national airline , Iberia , operated a daily service to Madrid which ceased for lack of demand.

Gibraltar International Airport is unusual not only because of its proximity to the city centre resulting in the airport terminal being within walking distance of much of Gibraltar but also because the runway intersects Winston Churchill Avenue , the main north-south street, requiring movable barricades to close when aircraft land or depart.

New roads and a tunnel, which will end the need to stop road traffic when aircraft use the runway, were planned to coincide with the building of a new airport terminal building with an originally estimated completion date of , [] [] although it has not been completed because of delays.

In addition, the Algeciras Heliport across the bay offers scheduled services to Ceuta. Gibraltar Cruise Terminal receives a large number of visits from cruise ships.

The Strait of Gibraltar is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. Passenger and cargo ships anchor in the Gibraltar Harbour. Also, a ferry links Gibraltar with Tangier in Morocco.

The ferry between Gibraltar and Algeciras , which had been halted in when Franco severed communications with Gibraltar, was finally reopened on 16 December , served by the Spanish company Transcoma.

Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar have been major concerns for its inhabitants throughout its history. There are no rivers, streams, or large bodies of water on the peninsula.

In the late 19th century, a Sanitary Commission instigated major improvements which saw the introduction of large-scale desalination and the use of giant water catchments covering over 2.

Both supplies are delivered from huge underground reservoirs excavated under the Rock of Gibraltar. In general, the Gibraltar force follows British police models in its dress and its mostly male constables and sergeants on foot patrol wear the traditional custodian helmet , the headgear of the British "bobby on the beat".

The helmet is traditionally made of cork covered outside by felt or serge -like material that matches the tunic. The vehicles also appear virtually identical to typical UK police vehicles, but are left hand drive.

The force, whose name received the prefix "Royal" in , currently numbers over officers divided into a number of units.

These include the CID , drug squad, special branch , firearms, scene of crime examiners , traffic, marine and operations units, sections or departments.

In January , the Ministry of Defence announced that the private company Serco would provide services to the base. The announcement resulted in the affected trade unions striking.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British Overseas Territory. For other uses, see Gibraltar disambiguation.

Bernard of Clairvaux Our Lady of Europe. Disputed status of Gibraltar and Political development in modern Gibraltar.

Places adjacent to Gibraltar. List of mammals of Gibraltar , List of birds of Gibraltar , and List of amphibians and reptiles of Gibraltar.

Percentage of population by religion [5] Percentage Roman Catholic. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar. Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration.

Godwin does not mention when the sport began on Gibraltar, but he does explicitly use the term "Tag Rugby" to describe the game.

Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 3 August Algora Publishing, 1 April Statistics Office of the Government of Gibraltar.

The civilian population includes Gibraltarian residents, other British residents including the wives and families of UK-based servicemen, but not the servicemen themselves and non-British residents.

Visitors and transients are not included. In , this broke down into 23, native-born citizens, 3, UK British citizens and 2, others, making a total population of 29, On census night, there were 31, people present in Gibraltar.

British Foreign Policy Group. Retrieved 2 April Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 8 January Gibraltar before the British.

Unpublished proof copy held by the British Library. A history of Gibraltar. The named reference Jackson was invoked but never defined see the help page.

The named reference Hills30 was invoked but never defined see the help page. The making of modern Gibraltar since The Rock of the Gibraltarians: A History of Gibraltar.

Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 20 December In fact, we will never even enter into a process without that agreement. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 30 July Archived copy as title link CS1 maint: Retrieved 15 June Who are the Gibraltar ?

Retrieved 26 June Spain calls for joint control of Gibraltar". Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 24 March The new Constitution "maximises self Government in all areas of Governance except defence, external affairs and internal security which, under our own Constitution vest in the Governor as a matter of distribution of powers.

Gibraltar "Gibraltar is self-governing in all areas except defence and foreign policy. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 6 November United Nations Committee on Decolonization.

Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 9 January Baseline climate means — from stations all over the world in French.

Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 5 June Global station data — — Sunshine Duration. Retrieved 29 September Michael Hogan Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus , Globaltwitcher.

Retrieved 25 May Gibraltar British Overseas Territory ". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 9 December Leading from the front".

Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 26 March Archived from the original on 11 May Guardian International Currency Corp.

Archived from the original on 11 October Gibraltar, identity and empire. Archer 11 January Gibraltar, Identity and Empire. Retrieved 5 October A New New English: Language, Politics, and Identity in Gibraltar.

BoD — Books on Demand. Official Government of Gibraltar London website. Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 30 October Prior Park School Gibraltar.

Retrieved on 28 October Archived from the original on 2 March Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.

Retrieved 7 July Home and Lifestyle Magazine. Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 31 August Centro de Estudios Andaluces. Archived from the original on 9 September Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society.

Archived from the original PDF on 1 December Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original PDF on 22 March Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original PDF on 24 February Archived from the original PDF on 24 November Spanish seal border as virus ship docks.

Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 9 March In November there was speculation in the aftermath of Operation Onymous , resulting in 17 arrests internationally, that a Tor weakness had been exploited.

A representative of Europol was secretive about the method used, saying: This possibility was downplayed by Andrew Lewman, a representative of the Tor project, suggesting that execution of more traditional police work was more likely.

However, in November court documents on the matter [40] generated serious concerns about security research ethics [41] and the right of not being unreasonably searched guaranteed by the US Fourth Amendment.

In , the administrators of Agora , a darknet market , announced they were taking the site offline in response to a recently discovered security vulnerability in Tor.

They did not say what the vulnerability was, but Wired speculated it was the "Circuit Fingerprinting Attack" presented at the Usenix security conference.

A study showed "anonymization solutions protect only partially against target selection that may lead to efficient surveillance" as they typically "do not hide the volume information necessary to do target selection".

The Tor Browser automatically starts Tor background processes and routes traffic through the Tor network. Upon termination of a session the browser deletes privacy-sensitive data such as HTTP cookies and the browsing history.

Following a series of disclosures on global surveillance , Stuart Dredge writing in The Guardian in November recommended using the Tor Browser to avoid eavesdropping and retain privacy on the Internet.

In August it was discovered [ by whom? The warrant alleges that Marques is "the largest facilitator of child porn on the planet".

In April , the Tor Project shut down the messenger project because the developers of Instantbird discontinued support for their own software.

Vuze formerly Azureus BitTorrent client, [] Bitmessage anonymous messaging system, [] and TorChat instant messenger include Tor support. The Guardian Project is actively developing a free and open-source suite of applications and firmware for the Android operating system to improve the security of mobile communications.

Tor has been praised for providing privacy and anonymity to vulnerable Internet users such as political activists fearing surveillance and arrest, ordinary web users seeking to circumvent censorship, and people who have been threatened with violence or abuse by stalkers.

National Security Agency NSA has called Tor "the king of high-secure, low-latency Internet anonymity", [15] and BusinessWeek magazine has described it as "perhaps the most effective means of defeating the online surveillance efforts of intelligence agencies around the world".

Advocates for Tor say it supports freedom of expression , including in countries where the Internet is censored, by protecting the privacy and anonymity of users.

The mathematical underpinnings of Tor lead it to be characterized as acting "like a piece of infrastructure , and governments naturally fall into paying for infrastructure they want to use".

The project was originally developed on behalf of the U. State Department , the Broadcasting Board of Governors , and the National Science Foundation as major contributors, [] aiming "to aid democracy advocates in authoritarian states".

Naval Research Laboratory , and the Government of Sweden. Tor executive director Andrew Lewman said that even though it accepts funds from the U.

Critics say that Tor is not as secure as it claims, [] pointing to U. The citation read, "Using free software, Tor has enabled roughly 36 million people around the world to experience freedom of access and expression on the Internet while keeping them in control of their privacy and anonymity.

Its network has proved pivotal in dissident movements in both Iran and more recently Egypt. In , Foreign Policy magazine named Dingledine, Mathewson, and Syverson among its Top Global Thinkers "for making the web safe for whistleblowers".

In , Jacob Appelbaum described Tor as a "part of an ecosystem of software that helps people regain and reclaim their autonomy. It helps to enable people to have agency of all kinds; it helps others to help each other and it helps you to help yourself.

It runs, it is open and it is supported by a large community spread across all walks of life. In October , The Tor Project hired the public relations firm Thomson Communications to improve its public image particularly regarding the terms "Dark Net" and "hidden services," which are widely viewed as being problematic and to educate journalists about the technical aspects of Tor.

In July , the Tor Project announced an alliance with the Library Freedom Project to establish exit nodes in public libraries. Although the DHS had alerted New Hampshire authorities to the fact that Tor is sometimes used by criminals, the Lebanon Deputy Police Chief and the Deputy City Manager averred that no pressure to strong arm the library was applied, and the service was re-established on 15 September Surveillance has a very well-documented chilling effect on intellectual freedom.

It is the job of librarians to remove barriers to information. In August , an IBM security research group, called "X-Force", put out a quarterly report that advised companies to block Tor on security grounds, citing a "steady increase" in attacks from Tor exit nodes as well as botnet traffic.

In September , Luke Millanta developed and released OnionView, a web service that plots the location of active Tor relay nodes onto an interactive map of the world.

In March , New Hampshire state representative Keith Ammon introduced a bill [] allowing public libraries to run privacy software. The bill specifically referenced Tor.

The text was crafted with extensive input from Alison Macrina, the director of the Library Freedom Project.

Lovecruft has legal representation from the Electronic Frontier Foundation. On December 2, , The New Yorker reported on burgeoning digital privacy and security workshops in the San Francisco Bay Area , particularly at the hackerspace Noisebridge , in the wake of the United States presidential election ; downloading the Tor browser was mentioned.

Tor and Bitcoin was fundamental to the operation of the darkweb marketplace AlphaBay , which was taken down in an international law enforcement operation in July The Russian-speaking underground offering a crime-as-a-service model is regarded as being particularly robust.

In June Venezuela blocked the Tor network, including bridge relays. On June 20, , Bavarian police raided the homes of the board members of the non-profit Zwiebelfreunde, a member of torservers.

The hardware and documentation seized had been kept under seal, and purportedly were neither analyzed nor evaluated by the Bavarian police.

By October , Chinese online communities within Tor have begun to dwindle due to increased efforts to stop them by the Chinese government.

Tor responded to earlier vulnerabilities listed above by patching them and improving security. In one way or another, human user errors can lead to detection.

The Tor Project website provides best practices instructions on how to properly use the Tor browser. When improperly used, Tor is not secure.

For example, Tor warns its users that not all traffic is protected; only the traffic routed through the Tor browser is protected.

Users are also warned to use https versions of websites, not to torrent with Tor, not to enable browser plugins, not to open documents downloaded through Tor while online, and to use safe bridges.

The best tactic of law enforcement agencies to de-anonymize users appears to remain with Tor-relay adversaries running poisoned nodes, as well as counting on the users themselves using Tor browser improperly.

When properly used, odds of being de-anonymized through Tor are said to be extremely low. At present the Tor network offers, out of a total of around 7, relays, around 2, guard entry nodes and around 1, exit nodes.

Tor does not provide protection against end-to-end timing attacks: Scripts on some sites may run slower.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 February Free and open-source anonymity network based on onion routing.

This article is about the software and anonymity network. Infographic about how Tor works, by EFF. List of Tor onion services.

Tor Browser on Linux Mint showing its start page — about: Windows XP and later Unix-like inc. Anarchism portal Cryptography portal Free and open-source software portal Freedom of speech portal Computer networking portal Information technology portal Internet portal Law enforcement portal.

Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 24 December Retrieved 20 September Network team update from Amsterdam".

Traffic Monitoring and Analysis: Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 14 January The New York Times. Retrieved 13 May Retrieved June 11, Retrieved 5 October Ryge 3 July Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 17 August Instrument of Peace, Strength, Development and Prosperity.

Tools and Techniques for Fighting Malicious Code. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Why is it called Tor?

Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 23 September The Second-Generation Onion Router". Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 27 October Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 12 December Retrieved 9 May Hidden Services and Deanonymisation".

Retrieved 20 June Global Politics and Strategy. Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 19 May Retrieved 30 July Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 6 February Tor a Big Source of Bank Fraud".

Retrieved 19 April United States of America v. Archived from the original PDF on 2 October Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 17 January The Wall Street Journal.

Retrieved 8 May Parliament says banning Tor is unacceptable and impossible". Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 9 November Welcome to the emerging field of Onion Dildonics".

Retrieved 22 February Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 18 September Cloud Computing Security Workshop. Association for Computing Machinery.

Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original PDF on 28 September Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 21 May One Bad Apple Spoils the Bunch: Retrieved 13 April They appear to have been targeting people who operate or access Tor hidden services.

They appear to have been targeting people who operate or access Tor hidden services We know the attack looked for users who fetched hidden service descriptors The attack probably also tried to learn who published hidden service descriptors, which would allow the attackers to learn the location of that hidden service Hidden service operators should consider changing the location of their hidden service.

Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 11 March Tor users can be tracked by mouse movements". Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 24 October

Also, a ferry links Gibraltar with Tangier in Morocco. The ferry between Gibraltar and Algeciras , which had been halted in when Franco severed communications with Gibraltar, was finally reopened on 16 December , served by the Spanish company Transcoma.

Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar have been major concerns for its inhabitants throughout its history. There are no rivers, streams, or large bodies of water on the peninsula.

In the late 19th century, a Sanitary Commission instigated major improvements which saw the introduction of large-scale desalination and the use of giant water catchments covering over 2.

Both supplies are delivered from huge underground reservoirs excavated under the Rock of Gibraltar. In general, the Gibraltar force follows British police models in its dress and its mostly male constables and sergeants on foot patrol wear the traditional custodian helmet , the headgear of the British "bobby on the beat".

The helmet is traditionally made of cork covered outside by felt or serge -like material that matches the tunic.

The vehicles also appear virtually identical to typical UK police vehicles, but are left hand drive. The force, whose name received the prefix "Royal" in , currently numbers over officers divided into a number of units.

These include the CID , drug squad, special branch , firearms, scene of crime examiners , traffic, marine and operations units, sections or departments.

In January , the Ministry of Defence announced that the private company Serco would provide services to the base. The announcement resulted in the affected trade unions striking.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British Overseas Territory. For other uses, see Gibraltar disambiguation.

Bernard of Clairvaux Our Lady of Europe. Disputed status of Gibraltar and Political development in modern Gibraltar. Places adjacent to Gibraltar.

List of mammals of Gibraltar , List of birds of Gibraltar , and List of amphibians and reptiles of Gibraltar. Percentage of population by religion [5] Percentage Roman Catholic.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar. Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration.

Godwin does not mention when the sport began on Gibraltar, but he does explicitly use the term "Tag Rugby" to describe the game. Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 3 August Algora Publishing, 1 April Statistics Office of the Government of Gibraltar.

The civilian population includes Gibraltarian residents, other British residents including the wives and families of UK-based servicemen, but not the servicemen themselves and non-British residents.

Visitors and transients are not included. In , this broke down into 23, native-born citizens, 3, UK British citizens and 2, others, making a total population of 29, On census night, there were 31, people present in Gibraltar.

British Foreign Policy Group. Retrieved 2 April Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 8 January Gibraltar before the British.

Unpublished proof copy held by the British Library. A history of Gibraltar. The named reference Jackson was invoked but never defined see the help page.

The named reference Hills30 was invoked but never defined see the help page. The making of modern Gibraltar since The Rock of the Gibraltarians: A History of Gibraltar.

Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 20 December In fact, we will never even enter into a process without that agreement.

Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 30 July Archived copy as title link CS1 maint: Retrieved 15 June Who are the Gibraltar ?

Retrieved 26 June Spain calls for joint control of Gibraltar". Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 24 March The new Constitution "maximises self Government in all areas of Governance except defence, external affairs and internal security which, under our own Constitution vest in the Governor as a matter of distribution of powers.

Gibraltar "Gibraltar is self-governing in all areas except defence and foreign policy. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 6 November United Nations Committee on Decolonization.

Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 9 January Baseline climate means — from stations all over the world in French.

Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 5 June Global station data — — Sunshine Duration. Retrieved 29 September Michael Hogan Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus , Globaltwitcher.

Retrieved 25 May Gibraltar British Overseas Territory ". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 9 December Leading from the front".

Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 26 March Archived from the original on 11 May Guardian International Currency Corp.

Archived from the original on 11 October Gibraltar, identity and empire. Archer 11 January Gibraltar, Identity and Empire.

Retrieved 5 October A New New English: Language, Politics, and Identity in Gibraltar. BoD — Books on Demand. Official Government of Gibraltar London website.

Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 30 October Prior Park School Gibraltar. Retrieved on 28 October Archived from the original on 2 March Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.

Retrieved 7 July Home and Lifestyle Magazine. Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 31 August Centro de Estudios Andaluces. Archived from the original on 9 September Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society.

Archived from the original PDF on 1 December Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original PDF on 22 March Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original PDF on 24 February Archived from the original PDF on 24 November Spanish seal border as virus ship docks.

Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 29 January Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Archived from the original on 30 September A Human History of the Mediterranean. Patrice Courcelle 1st ed.

A history of the siege of Gibraltar, — With a description and account of that garrison from the earliest periods London, A Few Bloody Noses: The Command of the Ocean: A Biography , London, Juan Moyano, Maria Montero, Francisco: Referencias en torno al bloqueo naval durante los asedios , Almoraima.

Chief Minister Governor Mayor. Anthem Coat of arms Official flag other flags. Category Commons Portal WikiProject. Member states of the European Union.

Future enlargement of the European Union. Links to related articles. Capitals of European states and territories.

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics. Capitals of British administrative divisions.

Countries and territories of the Mediterranean Sea. Countries, territories and dependencies of the United Kingdom. England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales.

List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom. Occupied jointly with the United States.

In , Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. Gave up self-rule in , but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in Now a department of Colombia.

League of Nations mandate. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence in as Rhodesia and continued as an unrecognised state until the Lancaster House Agreement.

After recognised independence in , Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in Antarctica and South Atlantic.

Territorial disputes involving the United Kingdom. These onion routers employ encryption in a multi-layered manner hence the onion metaphor to ensure perfect forward secrecy between relays, thereby providing users with anonymity in network location.

Because the IP address of the sender and the recipient are not both in cleartext at any hop along the way, anyone eavesdropping at any point along the communication channel cannot directly identify both ends.

Furthermore, to the recipient it appears that the last Tor node called the exit node , rather than the sender, is the originator of the communication.

Once inside a Tor network, the traffic is sent from router to router along the circuit, ultimately reaching an exit node at which point the cleartext packet is available and is forwarded on to its original destination.

Viewed from the destination, the traffic appears to originate at the Tor exit node. Tor can also provide anonymity to websites and other servers.

Servers configured to receive inbound connections only through Tor are called onion services formerly, hidden services. The Tor network understands these addresses by looking up their corresponding public keys and introduction points from a distributed hash table within the network.

It can route data to and from onion services, even those hosted behind firewalls or network address translators NAT , while preserving the anonymity of both parties.

Tor is necessary to access these onion services. Onion services were first specified in [86] and have been deployed on the Tor network since Because onion services route their traffic entirely through the Tor network, connection to an onion service is encrypted end-to-end and not subject to eavesdropping.

There are, however, security issues involving Tor onion services. For example, services that are reachable through Tor onion services and the public Internet are susceptible to correlation attacks and thus not perfectly hidden.

Other pitfalls include misconfigured services e. Onion services can also be accessed from a standard web browser without client-side connection to the Tor network, using services like Tor2web.

It runs on any platform supported by curses including Linux , macOS , and other Unix-like variants. The project began in the summer of , [96] [97] and since 18 July it has been an official part of the Tor Project.

Like all current low-latency anonymity networks , Tor cannot and does not attempt to protect against monitoring of traffic at the boundaries of the Tor network i.

While Tor does provide protection against traffic analysis , it cannot prevent traffic confirmation also called end-to-end correlation.

In spite of known weaknesses and attacks listed here, a study revealed Tor and the alternative network system JonDonym Java Anon Proxy, JAP are considered more resilient to website fingerprinting techniques than other tunneling protocols.

The reason for this is conventional single-hop VPN protocols do not need to reconstruct packet data nearly as much as a multi-hop service like Tor or JonDonym.

If an autonomous system AS exists on both path segments from a client to entry relay and from exit relay to destination, such an AS can statistically correlate traffic on the entry and exit segments of the path and potentially infer the destination with which the client communicated.

In , LASTor proposed a method to predict a set of potential ASes on these two segments and then avoid choosing this path during path selection algorithm on client side.

In this paper, they also improve latency by choosing shorter geographical paths between client and destination. In September , Dan Egerstad, a Swedish security consultant, revealed he had intercepted usernames and passwords for e-mail accounts by operating and monitoring Tor exit nodes.

While this may not inherently breach the anonymity of the source, traffic intercepted in this way by self-selected third parties can expose information about the source in either or both of payload and protocol data.

Who would pay for this and be anonymous? In October , a research team from ESIEA claimed to have discovered a way to compromise the Tor network by decrypting communication passing over it.

Then, using these known keys and seeds, they claim the ability to decrypt two encryption layers out of three. They claim to break the third key by a statistical-based attack.

In order to redirect Tor traffic to the nodes they controlled, they used a denial-of-service attack. There are two methods of traffic-analysis attack, passive and active.

In passive traffic-analysis method, the attacker extracts features from the traffic of a specific flow on one side of the network and looks for those features on the other side of the network.

In active traffic-analysis method, the attacker alters the timings of the packets of a flow according to a specific pattern and looks for that pattern on the other side of the network; therefore, the attacker can link the flows in one side to the other side of the network and break the anonymity of it.

Murdoch and George Danezis from University of Cambridge presented an article at the IEEE Symposium on security and privacy on traffic-analysis techniques that allow adversaries with only a partial view of the network to infer which nodes are being used to relay the anonymous streams.

Murdoch and Danezis have also shown that otherwise unrelated streams can be linked back to the same initiator. This attack, however, fails to reveal the identity of the original user.

Operators of Internet sites have the ability to prevent traffic from Tor exit nodes or to offer reduced functionality to Tor users. For example, it is not generally possible to edit Wikipedia when using Tor or when using an IP address also used by a Tor exit node, due to the use of the TorBlock MediaWiki extension, unless an exemption is obtained.

The BBC blocks the IP addresses of all known Tor guards and exit nodes from its iPlayer service — however relays and bridges are not blocked.

One method of attack depends on control of an exit node or hijacking tracker responses, while a secondary attack method is based in part on the statistical exploitation of distributed hash table tracking.

The results presented in the bad apple attack research paper are based on an attack in the wild launched against the Tor network by the authors of the study.

The attack targeted six exit nodes, lasted for twenty-three days, and revealed a total of 10, IP addresses of active Tor users.

This study is significant because it is the first documented attack designed to target P2P file-sharing applications on Tor.

The study was conducted by monitoring six exit nodes for a period of twenty-three days. Researches used three attack vectors: With this technique, researchers were able to identify other streams initiated by users, whose IP addresses were revealed.

The attack works using a colluding client and server, and filling the queues of the exit node until the node runs out of memory, and hence can serve no other genuine clients.

By attacking a significant proportion of the exit nodes this way, an attacker can degrade the network and increase the chance of targets using nodes controlled by the attacker.

The attacking relays were stable enough to achieve being designated as "suitable as hidden service directory" and "suitable as entry guard"; therefore, both the onion service users and the onion services might have used those relays as guards and hidden service directory nodes.

The project discovered that the attacking nodes joined the network early in the year on 30 January and the project removed them on 4 July.

In the same advisory, the project mentioned the following mitigations for the attack besides removing the attacking relays from the network.

In November there was speculation in the aftermath of Operation Onymous , resulting in 17 arrests internationally, that a Tor weakness had been exploited.

A representative of Europol was secretive about the method used, saying: This possibility was downplayed by Andrew Lewman, a representative of the Tor project, suggesting that execution of more traditional police work was more likely.

However, in November court documents on the matter [40] generated serious concerns about security research ethics [41] and the right of not being unreasonably searched guaranteed by the US Fourth Amendment.

In , the administrators of Agora , a darknet market , announced they were taking the site offline in response to a recently discovered security vulnerability in Tor.

They did not say what the vulnerability was, but Wired speculated it was the "Circuit Fingerprinting Attack" presented at the Usenix security conference.

A study showed "anonymization solutions protect only partially against target selection that may lead to efficient surveillance" as they typically "do not hide the volume information necessary to do target selection".

The Tor Browser automatically starts Tor background processes and routes traffic through the Tor network. Upon termination of a session the browser deletes privacy-sensitive data such as HTTP cookies and the browsing history.

Following a series of disclosures on global surveillance , Stuart Dredge writing in The Guardian in November recommended using the Tor Browser to avoid eavesdropping and retain privacy on the Internet.

In August it was discovered [ by whom? The warrant alleges that Marques is "the largest facilitator of child porn on the planet". In April , the Tor Project shut down the messenger project because the developers of Instantbird discontinued support for their own software.

Vuze formerly Azureus BitTorrent client, [] Bitmessage anonymous messaging system, [] and TorChat instant messenger include Tor support.

The Guardian Project is actively developing a free and open-source suite of applications and firmware for the Android operating system to improve the security of mobile communications.

Tor has been praised for providing privacy and anonymity to vulnerable Internet users such as political activists fearing surveillance and arrest, ordinary web users seeking to circumvent censorship, and people who have been threatened with violence or abuse by stalkers.

National Security Agency NSA has called Tor "the king of high-secure, low-latency Internet anonymity", [15] and BusinessWeek magazine has described it as "perhaps the most effective means of defeating the online surveillance efforts of intelligence agencies around the world".

Advocates for Tor say it supports freedom of expression , including in countries where the Internet is censored, by protecting the privacy and anonymity of users.

The mathematical underpinnings of Tor lead it to be characterized as acting "like a piece of infrastructure , and governments naturally fall into paying for infrastructure they want to use".

The project was originally developed on behalf of the U. State Department , the Broadcasting Board of Governors , and the National Science Foundation as major contributors, [] aiming "to aid democracy advocates in authoritarian states".

Naval Research Laboratory , and the Government of Sweden. Tor executive director Andrew Lewman said that even though it accepts funds from the U.

Critics say that Tor is not as secure as it claims, [] pointing to U. The citation read, "Using free software, Tor has enabled roughly 36 million people around the world to experience freedom of access and expression on the Internet while keeping them in control of their privacy and anonymity.

Its network has proved pivotal in dissident movements in both Iran and more recently Egypt. In , Foreign Policy magazine named Dingledine, Mathewson, and Syverson among its Top Global Thinkers "for making the web safe for whistleblowers".

In , Jacob Appelbaum described Tor as a "part of an ecosystem of software that helps people regain and reclaim their autonomy. It helps to enable people to have agency of all kinds; it helps others to help each other and it helps you to help yourself.

It runs, it is open and it is supported by a large community spread across all walks of life. In October , The Tor Project hired the public relations firm Thomson Communications to improve its public image particularly regarding the terms "Dark Net" and "hidden services," which are widely viewed as being problematic and to educate journalists about the technical aspects of Tor.

In July , the Tor Project announced an alliance with the Library Freedom Project to establish exit nodes in public libraries. Although the DHS had alerted New Hampshire authorities to the fact that Tor is sometimes used by criminals, the Lebanon Deputy Police Chief and the Deputy City Manager averred that no pressure to strong arm the library was applied, and the service was re-established on 15 September Surveillance has a very well-documented chilling effect on intellectual freedom.

It is the job of librarians to remove barriers to information. In August , an IBM security research group, called "X-Force", put out a quarterly report that advised companies to block Tor on security grounds, citing a "steady increase" in attacks from Tor exit nodes as well as botnet traffic.

In September , Luke Millanta developed and released OnionView, a web service that plots the location of active Tor relay nodes onto an interactive map of the world.

In March , New Hampshire state representative Keith Ammon introduced a bill [] allowing public libraries to run privacy software. The bill specifically referenced Tor.

The text was crafted with extensive input from Alison Macrina, the director of the Library Freedom Project. Lovecruft has legal representation from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

On December 2, , The New Yorker reported on burgeoning digital privacy and security workshops in the San Francisco Bay Area , particularly at the hackerspace Noisebridge , in the wake of the United States presidential election ; downloading the Tor browser was mentioned.

Tor and Bitcoin was fundamental to the operation of the darkweb marketplace AlphaBay , which was taken down in an international law enforcement operation in July The Russian-speaking underground offering a crime-as-a-service model is regarded as being particularly robust.

In June Venezuela blocked the Tor network, including bridge relays. On June 20, , Bavarian police raided the homes of the board members of the non-profit Zwiebelfreunde, a member of torservers.

The hardware and documentation seized had been kept under seal, and purportedly were neither analyzed nor evaluated by the Bavarian police.

By October , Chinese online communities within Tor have begun to dwindle due to increased efforts to stop them by the Chinese government.

Tor responded to earlier vulnerabilities listed above by patching them and improving security. In one way or another, human user errors can lead to detection.

The Tor Project website provides best practices instructions on how to properly use the Tor browser. When improperly used, Tor is not secure.

For example, Tor warns its users that not all traffic is protected; only the traffic routed through the Tor browser is protected.

Users are also warned to use https versions of websites, not to torrent with Tor, not to enable browser plugins, not to open documents downloaded through Tor while online, and to use safe bridges.

The best tactic of law enforcement agencies to de-anonymize users appears to remain with Tor-relay adversaries running poisoned nodes, as well as counting on the users themselves using Tor browser improperly.

When properly used, odds of being de-anonymized through Tor are said to be extremely low. At present the Tor network offers, out of a total of around 7, relays, around 2, guard entry nodes and around 1, exit nodes.

Tor does not provide protection against end-to-end timing attacks: Scripts on some sites may run slower. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 February Free and open-source anonymity network based on onion routing.

This article is about the software and anonymity network. Infographic about how Tor works, by EFF. List of Tor onion services.

Tor Browser on Linux Mint showing its start page — about: Windows XP and later Unix-like inc. Anarchism portal Cryptography portal Free and open-source software portal Freedom of speech portal Computer networking portal Information technology portal Internet portal Law enforcement portal.

Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 24 December Retrieved 20 September Network team update from Amsterdam".

Traffic Monitoring and Analysis: Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 14 January The New York Times. Retrieved 13 May Retrieved June 11, Retrieved 5 October Ryge 3 July Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 17 August Instrument of Peace, Strength, Development and Prosperity.

Tools and Techniques for Fighting Malicious Code. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Why is it called Tor? Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 23 September The Second-Generation Onion Router".

Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 27 October Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 12 December

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